The individual and geographical variation of the Brush-tailed Porcupine, Atherurus F. Cuvier, 1829 from eastern India, Burma, Thailand, Laos, China, Hainan, Peninsular Malaysia and some adjacent islands has been studied from material in European and American museums. Information about this material is presented and the status of ten specific and subspecific names is discussed. Only one species, Atherurus macrourus (Linnaeus, 1758) is recognized and insufficient arguments were found for the distinction of subspecies on the basis of the small samples at present available. An error in Van Weers (1976: 19) concerning the name of the type species of Trichys Günther, 1877, is corrected in a foot note.