Five alcyonarian species ( Alcyonium palmatum, A. acaule, Parerythropodium coralloides, Maasella edwardsi, Paralcyonium spinulosum) from the Mediterranean circalittoral zone are described, all but one ( Alcyonium palmatum) occurring on rocky bottoms. Application of the priority rule of zoological nomenclature led to the renaming of one species, while in another case a different generic name is applied. A complete description of the five species is given including colony form, morphology of the living polyps, morphology and morphometry of the spicules. The latter were observed by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ecology of each species is briefly described.