The taxonomic concept of the genus Thaumastopsaltria Kirkaldy is redefined on the basis of the shape of postclypeus and the length of the ovipositor. Tegmen venation is shown to be unreliable for this purpose. T. nana (Jacobi) does not fit this new concept and is, pending its transfer to another genus, not included in this revision. The genus now consists of a monophyletic group of seven species, for which a key to the males is presented. Two species (T. adipata (Stål) and T. globosa (Distant)), are redescribed, while five (T. sicula, T. lanceola, T. pneumatica, T. sarissa and T. spelunca) are described as new. T. glauca Ashton is brought into the synonymy of T. globosa. Thaumastopsaltria belongs to a group of New Guinean and Australian genera, defined previously as the “Baeturia and related genera complex”, and is probably closely related to Aedeastria De Boer and Cystosoma Westwood of that complex. The distribution of shared characters is discussed. Thaumastopsaltria is mainly distributed in New Guinea, with only one species in New Britain and one ranging from southern New Guinea to northern Queensland. Distribution maps are presented. Biogeographic patterns are discussed in relation to a preliminary phylogeny of the genus and the geological history of the area. Some common distribution patterns are recognized from comparison with distributions of other taxa of cicadas.