The regional variation of Chamaeleo chamaeleon is conspicuous, as might be expected, considering the wide distribution. This paper mainly deals with the chameleons of the Mediterranean populations. Though the range of variation per region is rather large, some clear clines can be discerned. In several characters we find a two-winged clinal variation with the centre in Egypt and Sinai. This might be an indication of the road along which Chamaeleo chamaeleon reached the Mediterranean, probably coming along the Nile from eastern Africa and spreading along the coast. Apart from the Indian and Arabian subspecies ( zeylanicus, orientalis, arbicus) the only populations that seem to be isolated enough to have the status of subspecies are those of the Sinai (musae). Ch. chamaeleon recticrista is a synonym of Ch. chamaeleon chamaeleon.