It has been asserted that Petrus Camper (1722-1789) was the first to distinguish the Javan Rhinoceros as a separate species. This opinion is based on a cursory remark in a posthumously published letter to the Russian scientist Peter Simon Pallas. A careful analysis of Camper’s numerous writings on the rhinoceros, both published and unpublished, has produced not the slightest confirmation of this taxonomic achievement. Therefore, it seems premature to label Camper as the discoverer of the Javan Rhinoceros. As Georges Cuvier made ample use of the material collected by Camper, we have also discussed its influence on Cuvier’s ideas with respect to rhinoceros classification.