Lower-Villafranchian landmammals lived in the South of the Netherlands when the coastline of the North Sea retired in northern direction during the Plio-Pleistocene transition period. In the province of Zealand their black remains have been fished out of the waters of the Scheldt in the depth of which littoral Poederlian deposits (Amstelian deposits are missing there in Zealand) occur and are eroded by the currents. Also borings in the provinces of Limburg and Guelderland have yielded black fossils of this fauna of which the following species could be stated in the Netherlands: Eucladoceros falconeri (Dawk.), Odobenus huxleyi (Lank.), Alachtherium spec., Anancus arvernensis (Croiz. et Job.), Archidiskodon planifrons (Falc. & Caut.), Gazella schreuderae Hooijer and Mustela erminea L. This Lower-Villafranchian fauna occurs also in the Red Crag of East-Anglia, in Piémont (Villafranca) and in Auvergne (Perrier, etc.). This fauna lived in the south of the Netherlands in the forests and along the coast of the North Sea which then was a deep quiet bay covering a strip of East-Anglia, te larger portion of the Netherlands and a small portion of Belgium along the Belgian-Dutch frontier from the North Sea coast to the east in the direction of the Meuse near Venlo. South of this coast-line a broad communication between England and the continent caused the identity of their mammals in that period.