The taxonomic history of the Brachypauropodidae and the characters of the family are discussed briefly. The current diagnosis is too narrow and the delimitation towards other families is unsatisfactory. Some generic characters are considered. The tubelike extensions on the temporal organs, thought to be peculiar to Brachypauropoides and one species in Hansenauropus, occur in at least four more genera and do not provide a good criterion on the generic level. Another character to be used with great caution is the number of tergal head setae. On the other hand, some antennal characters seem to be important. A preliminary family diagnosis and a subfamilial classification are proposed, and an updated key to the genera and a synopsis of the genera are given. It is shown that the genus Colinauropus has more features in common with genera of the Pauropodidae than with those of the Brachypauropodidae; it is transferred to the former family in a new subfamily Colinauropodinae close to the Scleropauropodinae.