The biology of Solenodon cubanus Peters, 1861, is poorly known. Recently, a male and two females were studied in the Havana Zoo and observations on this species were made in the field as well. The animals were docile unless startled or handled roughly. Previously unpublished information on their morphology, salivary toxicity, gland secretion, feeding habits, activity, predators, living quarters, social behavior, etc., is given. The present geographic distribution is centered in dense, humid forests on mountains of the eastern provinces with relict populations in central and western Cuba. The mongoose (Herpestes) and feral dog are potential predators that are actually not sympatric with Solenodon. Feral cats pose the greatest nonhuman threat to the continued existence of this most interesting mammal endemic to Cuba.