Bats show, in spite of the unity which they derive from the unique possession of flight-ability, remarkable differences in their encephalization (Pirlot & Stephan, 1970). These differences were found to be more closely related to feeding habits than to systematic relationships. The brains of the insect hunting species show the lowest degree of encephalization when treated with the allometry formula. Then, in ascending order, come the nectarfeeders, the frugivorous Microchiroptera, the fisheaters, the vampires and finally the frugivorous Megachiroptera. The present analysis of a variety of parts of the brain confirm the close relationships between characteristics of the brain and feeding habits. Therefore, in spite of the relatively restricted material, an attempt was made to interpret this surprising interdependence, its possible causes and ways of phylogenetic development.