An evaluation of the existing SPIX/WAGLER type material in the museums in Munich and Leiden is given. It transpired that a considerable part of the type material, which was thought to have been destroyed during the second world war, is still extant. The material is described briefly, its presenttaxonomic status is discussed and, where necessary, lectotypes are selected. Arising from this survey a number of nomenclatural changes are necessary. Natrix cinnamomea Wagler is here considered a species incertae sedis, possibly a species of Pseutes, which contrasts with the current opinion that this is a species of Chironius. BotbropsMegaera Wagler and B. leucurusWagler are consideredconspecifie and should be known under the name B. leucurus Wagler. Both B. Furia Wagler and B. tessellatus Wagler are synonyms of B. atrox (L.).. B. taeniatus Wagler is identical with B. castelnaudiDumeril& Bibron, and the species subsequently has to be called B. taeniatus Wagler. Leptotyphlops tenella Klauber is synonymised with L. albifrons Wagler. Emys cayennensis Schweigger is considered a synonym of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger). E. Tracaxa Spix and E. macrocephala Spix are conspecific and should be correctly called Peltocephalus tracaxa (Spix.). Podocnemis unifilis Troschel and E. dumeriliana Schweigger are identical; in orderto preserve stability suppression of E. dumeriliana and maintenance of P. unifilis as the valid name for the taxon is suggested (the opinion concerning the complex PodocnemislPeltocephalus has to be revised again according to a recent telephone and letter information of P. C. H. PRITCHARD; see footnote page342). Rana mystacea Spix contained two species, Leptodactylusmystaceus (recently incorrectly named L. amazonicus Heyer) and L. spixii Heyer, recently described. Rana binotataSpix and Hyla abbreviata Spix are considered conspecific. WAGLER (1830 b), acting as first revisor, used the name Enydrabius abbreviatus for this taxon which is currently known as Eleutherodactylus binotatus. The Commission will be requested to give R. binotata precedence over H. abbreviata. Hyla cinerascens Spix is identical with H. granosa Boulengerand would have priority. It is suggested that H. cinerascens be suppressed. Hyla nebulosa Spix is identical with Ololygon egleri Lutz and has priority, we suggest that this taxon henceforth be known as O. nebulasa (Spix), The four taxa of the Bufo typhonius group described by Spix (B. naricus Spix, B. nasutus Schneider, B. acutirostris Spix and B. proboscideus Spix) are treated here as separate taxa, awaiting further study of this group. MEDEM's efforts to reintroduce the specific name sclerops for the species widely known as Caiman crocodilus are refuted on the basis of type material and misinterpretation of the Rules of Nomenclature. The synonymisation of Anolis violaceus Spix with A. punctatus Daudin and that of Gecko(Lophyrus) crucifer Spix with Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnes) are doubted, butbecause of lack of type material no further action is taken. Brazilian authors are followed in using the name Mabuya bistriata (Spix) for Amazonian skinks, where as Scincus nigropunctatus Spix is considered Mabuya spec. Sepsfragilis Raddi has priority over PygOpU5 striatus Spix, put as this name change would upset a long established name, it is suggested to suppress Seps fragilis.

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Staff publications

Hoogmoed, M. S., & Gruber, U. (1983). Spix and Wagler type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Natural History Musea in Munich (Germany) and Leiden (The Netherlands). Spixiana, 9, 319–415.