Floral Ontogeny in Scirpus, Eriophorum and Dulichium (Cyperaceae), with Special Reference to the Perianth
Annals of Botany , Volume 95 - Issue 7 p. 1199- 1209
Background and Aims Based on molecular phylogenetic analysis, it has been suggested recently that the Cyperaceae comprises only two subfamilies: the Mapanioideae and the Cyperoideae. In most flowers of the Cyperoideae, the whorl of inner stamens is reduced, resulting in tetracyclic flowers. In the more primitive (scirpoid) genera within the Cyperoideae, the perianth consists of two polysymmetric whorls, whereas the perianth parts in the more derived genera have been subject to modifications and/or reduction. Comparative studies of the many silky hairs of Eriophorum and of the eight bristles of Dulichium have given rise to much discussion about their homology. Methods The spikelet and floral ontogeny in freshly collected inflorescences was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Complete floral ontogenies are presented for Scirpus sylvaticus L., Eriophorum latifolium Hoppe and Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton, with special reference to the perianth. The results in S. sylvaticus confirm the trimerous monocot-like organization of the flower. It is used as a model for floral development in Cyperoideae. In the early developmental stages, the androecium of E. latifolium is surrounded by a massive perigonial primordium, from which the many hair-like bristles originate. Consequently, the stamens develop among the hair primordia, more or less simultaneously. The hairs are arranged in whorls, which develop centripetally. The development of the perianth in D. arundinaceum starts with the formation of three initial perianth primordia opposite the stamens. Subsequently, two more abaxial bristle primordia, alternating with the stamens, originate simultaneously with the appearance of three adaxial bristle primordia in the zone where an adaxial inner perianth primordium is expected. Conclusions The floral development in E. latifolium and D. arundinaceum can be considered as variations upon the scirpoid floral ontogenetic theme.