The survey and monitoring of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) The goal of this paper is to encourage the use of ants in monitoring programs and biodiversity surveys. Monitoring is restricted to ground-dwelling ants, because the sexual forms are too erratic in occurrence. For monitoring of ant populations the tube-method is best suited. The tubes are filled with sweet fruity wine and placed in the ground. Per habitat type ten tubes are placed in a row, ten metres apart. For surveys several, partly complementary, methods are used. These are described and some results are given in tables. It has to be stressed that all these methods are suitable for qualitative analysis only. In table 3 a list of species per ecotype is given.