The type material of Cervus nippon Temminck, 1836, present in the Leiden museum, is re-examined ; a lectotype is chosen, and a new description of lectotype and paralectotypes is given. In an attempt to determine the exact type locality or localities, the type series is compared with published descriptions of Japanese Sika and with material present in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). The characteristics of the type series are in good agreement with those of Sika from southern Japan; the lectotype closely agrees with specimens originating from the main islands of southern Japan (southern Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku) and may have come from the surroundings of Nagasaki (Kyushu) ; the remaining type series agrees better with specimens from the Goto Islands, where several Leiden specimens are known to have been collected. A revision of Cervus nippon of the main Japanese islands is given, 3 subspecies being recognized within this area.