CONTENTS 1. Preface . . . 83 2. Introduction . . . 85 3. Synopsis of the strata yielding fossil non-marine Mollusca . . . 86 4. Systematic survey of the shells . . . 93 5. Ecological valuation of the deposits . . . 160 6. Malacological evidence for the determination of the age of the beds . . . 166 7. Literature . . . 177 PREFACE The following report is based in the first place on the important collection of fossil non-marine mollusca made by Prof. Eug. Dubois at Trinil and vicinity (East Java) during excavations in the years 1890 to 1900. It is the very same region where Prof. Dubois discovered the famous remains of his Pithecanthropus erectus, a man-like primate. The structure and affinities of this fossil being have not only roused the general interest of naturalists and occupied them for almost the last 40 years, but they appeal also to the imagination of the whole mankind in past, present and future. The entire Dubois Collection is now preserved at Leiden, as a special part of the collections of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, under the immediate supervision of the collector. I take great pleasure in expressing to Prof. Dubois my infinite gratitude for entrusting to me the malacological part of his extraordinary collection. His benevolent interest during the progress of the work was amply demonstrated by various suggestions and useful advice. My acknowledgments are also due to the late Dr. J. J. A. Bernsen O. F.