A revision is given of the 16 recognized South American species of the New World genus Aphylla Selys. Three new species are described and figured, viz. A. scapula (♂ holotype; Brazil, Territorio de Rondônia, Fazenda Rancho Grande), A. silvatica (♂ holotype: Ecuador, Provincia Napo, Limoncocha) and A. spinula (♂ holotype: Perú, Departamento de Cuzco, Río Urubamba). A. obscura (Kirby, 1899) and A. albinensis Belle, 1970, are considered junior synonyms of A. tenuis Selys, 1859, and A. brevipes Selys, 1854, respectively, while A. simulata Belle, 1964, is considered a synonym of A. dentata Selys, 1859. Separate identification keys to the males and the females of the South American species of Aphylla are provided.