The taxonomic history of the Japanese Wood Mouse ("Himenezumi" in Japanese) is reviewed. Two scientific names have been widely used: Apodemus argenteus (Temminck, 1844) and Apodemus geisha (Thomas, 1905). To solve this controversy, the type material of Mus argenteus Temminck, 1844 in the Leiden museum is re-examined. The type series is composite; a lectotype is chosen. The lectotype corresponds in skull characters with the holotype of Micromys geisha Thomas, 1905; the latter name therefore is a junior synonym of Mus argenteus. The two paralectotypes are juvenile specimens of Apodemus speciosus (Temminck, 1844).