The present paper is intended to be the first in a series revising the various families of Decapod Crustacea known from the Red Sea. This series is based in the first place on the material brought together by the 1962 and 1965 Israel South Red Sea Expeditions 1) (hereafter indicated as ISRSE I and II respectively), in both of which the author took part. Also Red Sea material from other sources is included, foremost among this is the material from near Elat on the Israel coast of the Gulf of Aqaba brought together by the Zoology Departments of the Universities of Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem. Also all the literature dealing with Red Sea representatives of these groups, as far as known to me, is taken into account. In this way it is hoped to give an accurate picture of our present knowledge of the Red Sea Decapoda. Under each species, in addition to the original reference, all references to Red Sea specimens of that species are cited. In the enumeration of the examined material first that collected by the ISRSE is listed, followed by the rest arranged according to the institutions where the material is kept. Of the ISRSE material the first series is held by the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, duplicates are in the collections of the Zoology Departments of the Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem Universities while eventual further duplicates are donated to the U.S. Natio1) Supported by grant No. N. 62558-4456 of the U.S. Office of Naval Research. nal Museum, the British Museum, and the Museum for Central Africa (Tervuren, Belgium). My participation in the two ISRS expeditions was made possible by grants from the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Zuiver-Wetenschappelijk