Two new genera and four new species of the gorgonacean family Chrysogorgiidae are described and illustrated, and keys to the genera and species are presented. The genus Stephanogorgia is established for a new shallow-water species, Stephanogorgia wainwrighti, from the Fiji Islands. A second new species from the Sulu Archipelago, collected by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer "Albatross", is described as S. diomedea. A species from the Palau Islands, recently described by Bayer as Trichogorgia faulkneri, is shown to be generically distinct from Trichogorgia and is here transferred to Stephanogorgia. A new species of the genus Trichogorgia Hickson, obtained by diving and shallowwater trawling in the Caribbean Sea, is described as Trichogorgia lyra, and the synonymy of the genus Malacogorgia Hickson with Trichogorgia Hickson, as proposed by Kükenthal, is supported. A new genus, Xenogorgia, is established for an unusual chrysogorgiid from South Africa having a colonial form different from all chrysogorgiids heretofore known; the type and only species is Xenogorgia sciurus, spec. nov.