Arguments are put forward for the erection of a new family of Diptera, named Centrioncidae. Centrioncus prodiopsis, its only previously described representative, was originally placed in the Sepsidae and later transferred to the Diopsidae. This species is now redescribed and five more Centrioncus are added. For 15 new Centrioncidae species occurring south of the Zambesi the genus Teloglabrus is created. A key to the species is given. Centrioncidae only occur in Afromontane forests and all species have very limited, allopatric distributions. They are now known to occur in Ivory Coast, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland and South Africa. A review of the Centrioncus literature is given. The morphology, especially of female and male postabdomen, is discussed. A sister-group relationship between Centrioncidae and the neotropical Syringogastridae is postulated. Together these two families might form the sister-group of the Diopsidae. Intrafamiliar phylogenetic relationships of Centrioncidae are also indicated. Parasitism by Rhizomyces spp. (Laboulbeniales) is briefly discussed.