The author deals with taxonomy, character variation, phylogeny and biogeography of Heterometrus, a scorpion genus occurring in Southeast Asia. The taxonomic value of 131 characters is studied, including 75 biometric ones; 72 characters are selected to be used in the present revision for purposes of classification. In the numerical analysis and in the study of descriptive characters, specimens are clustered polythetically; this method allows variation as observed in the taxa, the sharing of the total set of taxon characteristics not being absolutely required. A total of 21 species (4 new) and 31 subspecies (16 new) are discriminated, classified in five subgenera, two of which are new. The African genus Pandinus Thorell is found to be the sistergroup of Heterometrus.