The scarab tribe Corythoderini is reviewed. All its members appear associated with termites, probably in a symphilous way; the host records all pertain to Odontotermes species. The known range of the Corythoderini falls within the range of the host genus : Africa to Burma. The phylogeny of the corythoderine genera is discussed. Comparative remarks on other termitophilous scarabs are added. The closest known relatives of the Corythoderini are the Termitoderini, trib. nov. The tribe Corythoderini is diagnosed, inter alia, by means of a key to the subfamilies and tribes of the Aphodiidae. The corythoderine genera are diagnosed and keyed. All the species are keyed, and the new species are described. The characters of the genera and of the species of the two larger genera are analysed and reviewed in tabular form. One new genus is proposed : Hemicorythoderus ; one new subgenus : Miochaetopisthes ; 15 new species are described in the genera Chaetopisthes Westwood, Termitopisthes Wasmann, Paracorythoderus Wasmann. Type-species as well as lectotypes are designated. The known distribution of the species is mapped. The taxonomic information on all the taxa recognized is summarized in an annotated checklist.