Palaeontology is too often odontology of necessity, the dentition being the most resistant part of the skeleton. When, as in the genus Dicerorhinus, the dentition can be a source of mistaken identity, we must look for species deter- mination based on complete skulls as referents. This leads to problems of ecology when seen in combination with the fluctuating Pleistocene vegetation belts. Some recent species are included to show similarities and dissimilarities within the group.