It is concluded that the endemic Ruminantia from the Late Miocene island-fauna of Monte Gargano (Italy) originated from antlerless Cervidae. This in spite of the fact that these Ruminantia from Gargano evidently had horncore-like cranial appendages. The presence of horncores, in combination with the presence of characters diagnostic for the Cervidae, justifies the classification of the Gargano ruminants in a separate family: Hoplitomerycidae fam. nov. which family is included in the Cervoidea. The classification of the pecoran families is discussed. The Giraffidae are more closely related to the Bovidae than to the Cervidae. It is proposed that the Giraffidae be transferred from the Cervoidea to the Bovoidea. Palaeomeryx is probably not closely related to the Giraffidae.

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Journal Scripta Geologica

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Leinders, J. (1984). Hoplitomerycidae fam. nov. (Ruminantia, Mammalia) from Neogene fissure fillings in Gargano (Italy) Part 1: The cranial osteology of Hoplitomeryx gen. nov. and a discussion on the classification of pecoran families. Scripta Geologica, 70, 1–51.