One of the most exciting episodes of paleoanthropology was the find of the first transitional form, the Pithecanthropus erectus, by the Dutchman Eugène Dubois in Java during 1891-1892. The history of Dubois and his finds of the molar, skullcap and femur, forming his transitional form, are described. Besides the human remains, Dubois made a large collection of vertebrate fossils, mostly of mammals, now united in the so-called Dubois Collection. This collection played an important role in unravelling the biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of Java. Questions, such as from where were those mammals coming, when did Homo erectus arrive in Java, and when did it become extinct, and when did Homo sapiens reach Java, are discussed.

Scripta Geologica. Special Issue

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Naturalis journals & series

de Vos, J. (2004). [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: The Dubois collection: a new look at an old collection. Scripta Geologica. Special Issue, 4(31), 267–285.