The occurrence of the earthworm Allolobophora cupulifera in the Netherlands (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) First records are described of the occurrence of the earthworm Allolobophora cupulifera (Tétry, 1937) in the Netherlands. One population of this rare species was found in a grassland site on peaty clay soil in the Kortenbroek polder along the river Lek in the south-western part of the Netherlands. Another population was found in a grassland site on clay loam soil in the Afferdensche en Deestsche Waarden, a flood plain area (river foreland) of the river Waal in the centre of the Netherlands. The finding in moist habitats situated near water agrees with an ecological classification of A. cupulifera as a hygrophilous and relatively acid-tolerant riparian species. The species occurs at relatively low numbers in small localized sites. According to the presently reported findings, together with the available literature, it may be suggested that the distribution of the species incorporates the whole Rhine estuary. Its range extends to the island of Fynn in Denmark in the north and to Marseille (France) in the south. The eastern border is formed by the region of Bonn and the valley of the river Mosel. There are no reports from Great Britain. An anomalous specimen of the species is described.